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SpamAssassin 3 on Ubuntu 16

Note: This article describes setting up SpamAssassin 3 to work with a Postfix/Dovecot email server on Ubuntu 16, and it applies to other Debian/Ubuntu variants that use systemd. There are some significant differences in the SpamAssassin config between distros that use systemd and those that use init. For the Ubuntu 12/14 version of this article, go here.

Step 1: Install SpamAssassin and its client

$ apt-get install spamassassin spamc

Step 2: Add a user for the spamd daemon

$ adduser spamd --disabled-login

Step 3: Edit the configuration settings at /etc/default/spamassassin

My comments here are marked with the ## symbol. systemd does its own shell-style parsing, so we need to change some of our directives from before.

## With the arrival of systemd, the ENABLED parameter is now ignored. You'll enable SpamAssassin in step 6, below.

# Set the username, home directory and log file
## A change from before here as well. Previously we defined a SPAMD_HOME variable and inserted it 
## via brackets{} to target the /home/spamd/ directory. However, systemd no longer expands these 
## variables, causing ${SPAMD_HOME} to be printed verbatim. We're using the actual directories here instead.
OPTIONS="--create-prefs --max-children 5 --username spamd --helper-home-dir /home/spamd/ -s /home/spamd/spamd.log"

# Set a location for the Process ID file
## We used SPAMD_HOME here before as well.
## Default is now /var/run/ hard-coded into the /lib/systemd/system/spamassassin.service file. 
## There's no particular reason to change it, but if you do, remember to do systemctl daemon-reload before starting spamd.
# PIDFILE="/var/run/"

# Set the sa-update process to update the anti-spam rules automatically on a nightly basis

Step 4. Edit /etc/spamassassin/ to set up some anti-spam rules

I use the following settings:

rewrite_header Subject ***** SPAM _SCORE_ *****
report_safe             0
required_score          5.0
use_bayes               1
use_bayes_rules         1
bayes_auto_learn        1
skip_rbl_checks         0
use_razor2              0
use_dcc                 0
use_pyzor               0

This will cause each email that scores 5.0 or greater on its spam checks to marked with ***** SPAM ***** and the score in its subject line. Most email clients already recognize the headers or text that SpamAssassin adds to incoming emails, but if you have a client that doesn't, you can set up a filtering rule to send any message with ***** SPAM ***** in its subject line directly to your junk folder.

The "bayes" rules allow the Bayesian filter to try to identify spam. And if report_safe is set to 0, incoming spam will be identified by "X-Spam-" headers added to the message while no changes are made to the message body.

Step 5: Tell Postfix to pass incoming messages to the anti-spam system for checking

Edit /etc/postfix/ and add a content filter to your SMTP server:

smtp      inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
        -o content_filter=spamassassin

Still in /etc/postfix/, add this to the end of the file:

spamassassin unix -     n       n       -       -       pipe
        user=spamd argv=/usr/bin/spamc -f -e  
        /usr/sbin/sendmail -oi -f ${sender} ${recipient}

This tells the client to pass its completed checks to the default MTA (mail transfer agent, /usr/sbin/sendmail, i.e., the Postfix-Sendmail compatibility interface) for handoff to the MDA (mail delivery agent, Dovecot) for delivery.

Step 6: Start/restart everything and test

$ systemctl restart postfix.service
$ systemctl enable spamassassin.service
$ systemctl start spamassassin.service

(To check SpamAssassin's startup status, do systemctl list-units --type=service --all. spamassassin.service will be listed as active/loaded if it's running properly.

spamassassin.service                       loaded    active     Perl-based spam filter using text analysis

Now try sending your accounts on the server a couple of emails from an external account (Gmail,, whatever) and check the full message headers after you've received them. You should see some entries like this if everything is working correctly:

X-Spam-Checker-Version: SpamAssassin 3.4.1 (2015-04-28) on
X-Spam-Status: No, score=-1.9 required=5.0 tests=BAYES_00, etc. etc.

I find the basic configuration above to be pretty solid, but of course you can tinker with the spam scores, filtering methods, or other settings if you like.